Presently transport in india comprises several modes of transport
including rail, road, coastal shipping, air transport etc.
- The share of road in total traffic has been growing from 13.8% of freight traffic and 15.4% of passenger traffic in 1950-51 to an estimated 61% of freight traffic and 85% of passenger traffic by the end of 2003-04.
- The Tenth Plan (2002-07) outlay for the Central Sector Roads Programme Rs. 59,700 crore.
- Indian road network of 41 lakh km. is the one of the largest in the world and consists of:
- They are constructed and maintained by the central government.
- The National Highways has 71,772 km. length comprising only 2% of the total length of roads, carries about 40% of the total traffic of India.
- The central government has taken up in a phased manner during 2005-2012 an expanded programme of 4/6 lanning of 12,109 kms. of National Highways (NH) under the National Highways Development Programme (NHDP) On Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis y>- A ‘Special Accelerated Road Development Programme for North-East (SARDPNE)’ has been taken up. The two phased (Phase-A and Phase-B)
programme includes improving 6418 km of roads (including 2319 km. of roads under Arunachal Package). The Phase-A is likely to be completed during 2010-17. Phase-B involves two-laning of 3723 km. of roads.
Some Important National Highways
- According to the 2001 census, there are 219 National Highways in the country. Some of them are :
- The longest National highway in India is NH-7; which has a length of 128 kms in Uttar Pradesh, 504 kms in Madhya Pradesh, 232 kms in Maharashtra, 753 kms in Andhra Pradesh, 125 kms in Karnataka, 627 kms in Tamil Nadu i.e. total 2369 kms.
They are constructed and maintained by the state government. The length of roads in some states is :
- Maharashtra has the maximum length of roads.
- Maharashtra also has the maximum length of metalled roads.
- Odisha/Orissa has the maximum length of unpaved roads.
- West Bengal has the maximum road density.
- Roads on the borders are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO).
- BRO was established in May 1960.
- BRO is a premier construction agency roads airfields, bridges, buildings, hospitals and schools.
- The BRO, through ‘Project Dantak’ is constructing a large road
- The BRO is doing highly commendable jobs of cosntruction and mait-enance in Myanmar and Afghanistan too.
- The Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 160 years.
- From a very modest beginning in 1853, Indian Railway s have grown into a vast network of 7,031 stations spread over a route-length of 63,221 km. with a fleet of 7,817 locomotives, 5,321 passenger service vehicles 4,904 other coaching vehicles and 2,28,170 wagons as on 31 March, 2004.
- Indian Railway network is the largest in Asia and second largest in the World.
- The first rail in India started in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane (34 kms).
- Indian Railway Board was established in March 1905.
- Indian Railway was nationalised in 1950.
- There are three types of rail lines in India :
(i) Broad Gauge
(ii) Meter Gauge and
(iii) Narrow Gauge.
- The network runs multigauge operations extending over 63,974 route kilometres.
- The management and governance of the Indian railways is in the hands of the Railway Board.
- Railways have been divided into 17 zones.
- Recently a new zone Kolkata Metro Zone (17th zone) has been established on 29 December, 2010.
Divisional Organization of the Zonal Railways
- Airways in India started in 1911.
- Indian National Airways Company was started in 1933.
- All the airway companies were nationalised in 1953 and were put under two corporations namely — Indian Airlines and Air India.
- Indian Airlines provide services in India from one region to another along with neighbouring countries of Bangladesh,Nepal,Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Maldives.
- Also Air India provides there services to the different places of foreign locations.
- In 1981 Vayudoot was established for domestic services, but after some time it’s merged with Indian Airlines.
Merger of Air India and Indian Airlines
Indian Airlines operates to 54 domestic stations alongwith its subsidiary Airlines ‘Alliance Air’. Besides it also operates to 18 international stations.
The Union Cabinet approved on the 1st March, 2007 the proposal to merge Indian Airlines and Air India.
Accordingly, a new company, viz. National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACL) has been incorporated on 30th March, 2007 with its Headquarters at Mumbai. The brand name of the new airlines will be Air India (or Indian) and its logo will be Maharaja.
- The Central Water Tribunal was established in 1887.
- Its headquarter is in Kolkata.
- The water transport of the country is divided into Internal waterways and Oceanic waterways.
- This type of transports are through rivers, canals and lakes.
- India has got about 14,544 km. of navigable waterways which comprise rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks etc.
- About 44 million tonnes of Cargo is being moved annually by Inland Water Transport (IWT).
- In 1986,the waterway from Haldia to Allahabad was made a National Water way.
- The peninsular bank is very important for this purpose.
- Total 13 large and 200 small ports are made on the major bank of 5600 kms.
- Large ports are maintained by the central government whereas small ports are included in the concurrent list and are managed by the state government.
- At the beginning of the Tenth Plan, the capacity of major ports was about 344 MT. It is proposed to be increased to 470 MT by the end of the Tenth Plan.
- Largest port of India is Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai.
- The largest natural port is in Vishakhapatnam.
- Kandla in Gujarat is a tidal port. It has been made into a free trade zone.